Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, results from a prolonged state of poor oral hygiene with accumulation of bacterial plaque. It starts with bacteria, or plaque, passing below the gum line causing redness, inflammation and bleeding of the gums, called gingivitis. Gum disease at the stage of gingivitis can still be reversed with the prophylaxis/ cleaning treatment. If gingivitis is left untreated, it can progress into periodontitis, which is the irreversible loss of bone. The bacteria invades deeper into the gums and enters the bone around the teeth and causes bone loss. This eventually results in loose teeth that will shift apart and can even fall out. The progressive stages of Periodontitis from gingivitis to mild, to moderate then to severe bone loss, determine the type of treatment required, starting with prohylaxis of the teeth at the early stage, to a deeper scaling and root planing at the later stage’s with even a surgical deep cleaning at the advanced stage.